# 7.5. Exercises¶

Solutions to exercises are available to students in Cornell’s CS 3110. Instructors at other institutions are welcome to contact Michael Clarkson for access.

**Exercise: mutable fields [★]**

Define an OCaml record type to represent student names and GPAs. It should be
possible to mutate the value of a student’s GPA. Write an expression defining a
student with name `"Alice"`

and GPA `3.7`

. Then write an expression to mutate
Alice’s GPA to `4.0`

.

**Exercise: refs [★]**

Give OCaml expressions that have the following types. Use utop to check your answers.

`bool ref`

`int list ref`

`int ref list`

**Exercise: inc fun [★]**

Define a reference to a function as follows:

```
let inc = ref (fun x -> x + 1)
```

Write code that uses `inc`

to produce the value `3110`

.

**Exercise: addition assignment [★★]**

The C language and many languages derived from it, such as Java, has an
*addition assignment* operator written `a += b`

and meaning `a = a + b`

.
Implement such an operator in OCaml; its type should be
`int ref -> int -> unit`

. Here’s some code to get you started:

```
let ( +:= ) x y = ...
```

And here’s an example usage:

```
# let x = ref 0;;
# x +:= 3110;;
# !x
- : int = 3110
```

**Exercise: physical equality [★★]**

Define `x`

, `y`

, and `z`

as follows:

```
let x = ref 0
let y = x
let z = ref 0
```

Predict the value of the following series of expressions:

```
# x == y;;
# x == z;;
# x = y;;
# x = z;;
# x := 1;
# x = y;;
# x = z;;
```

Check your answers in utop.

**Exercise: norm [★★]**

The Euclidean norm of an \(n\)-dimensional vector \(x = (x_1, \ldots, x_n)\) is written \(|x|\) and is defined to be

Write a function `norm : vector -> float`

that computes the
Euclidean norm of a vector, where `vector`

is defined as follows:

```
(* AF: the float array [| x1; ...; xn |] represents the
* vector (x1, ..., xn)
* RI: the array is non-empty *)
type vector = float array
```

Your function should not mutate the input array. *Hint: although your first
instinct might be to reach for a loop, instead try to use Array.map and
Array.fold_left or Array.fold_right.*

**Exercise: normalize [★★]**

Every vector can be *normalized* by dividing each component by
\(|x|\); this yields a vector with norm 1:

Write a function `normalize : vector -> unit`

that normalizes a vector “in
place” by mutating the input array. Here’s a sample usage:

```
# let a = [|1.; 1.|];;
val a : float array = [|1.; 1.|]
# normalize a;;
- : unit = ()
# a;;
- : float array = [|0.7071...; 0.7071...|]
```

*Hint: Array.iteri.*

**Exercise: norm loop [★★]**

Modify your implementation of `norm`

to use a loop. Here is pseudocode for what
you should do:

```
initialize norm to 0.0
loop through array
add to norm the square of the current array component
return sqrt of norm
```

**Exercise: normalize loop [★★]**

Modify your implementation of `normalize`

to use a loop.

**Exercise: init matrix [★★★]**

The `Array`

module contains two functions for creating an array: `make`

and
`init`

. `make`

creates an array and fills it with a default value, while `init`

creates an array and uses a provided function to fill it in. The library also
contains a function `make_matrix`

for creating a two-dimensional array, but it
does not contain an analogous `init_matrix`

to create a matrix using a function
for initialization.

Write a function `init_matrix : int -> int -> (int -> int -> 'a) -> 'a array array`

such that `init_matrix n o f`

creates and returns an `n`

by `o`

matrix
`m`

with `m.(i).(j) = f i j`

for all `i`

and `j`

in bounds.

See the documentation for `make_matrix`

for more information on the
representation of matrices as arrays.

**Exercise: doubly linked list [★★★★]**

Implement a data abstraction for a mutable doubly-linked list. Here is a representation type to get you started:

```
(** An ['a node] is a node of a mutable doubly-linked list.
It contains a value of type ['a] and optionally has
pointers to previous and/or next nodes. *)
type 'a node = {
mutable prev : 'a node option;
mutable next : 'a node option;
value : 'a
}
(** An ['a dlist] is a mutable doubly-linked list with elements
of type ['a]. It is possible to access the first and
last elements in constant time.
RI: The list does not contain any cycles. *)
type 'a dlist = {
mutable first : 'a node option;
mutable last : 'a node option;
}
```

Implement at least these operations:

create an empty list

insert a new first value

insert a new last value

insert a new node after a given node

insert a new node before a given node

remove a node

iterate forward through the list applying a function

iterate backward through the list applying a function

*Hint: draw pictures! Reasoning about mutable data structures is typically
easier if you draw a picture.*